Port in Hamburg

加强欧盟对零毁林产品的监管

通过健全的风险评估来针对毁林风险最大的地区采取行动,可改善条例草案的执行情况。

14 Jun 2022

James Richens

Photo credit: Port in Hamburg // Tim Siegert, iStock.com

Trase发布了一份政策简报,就欧盟2020年后禁止进口毁林区所产大豆、牛肉和棕榈油等农业产品的条例提案重点指出了一些加强实施力度的可能性。

Trase对该条例草案持欢迎态度,因为该草案向毁林相关主体发出了明确的信号。如能得以切实执行,不仅可以实现整肃欧盟供应链的目标,还有可能帮助减少由大宗商品所推动的毁林现象,并提高全球消费市场的标准。

然而,在执行方面的挑战横亘面前。

目前,处于条例提案核心地位的尽职调查机制要求企业对所有风险等级的进口商品收集地块级别地理位置。对于来自评估结果为“普通”或高风险地区的进口,企业必须评估并降低商品在毁林区生产的风险。

针对较高风险区采取行动

Trase建议,欧盟应在目前设想的提案基础上,纳入一个健全且定期更新的国家以下各级政府层面的风险基准体系。这将有助于对合规证明所需的资料进行量身定制的规定,并有助于主管当局在保证零毁林供应要求的严格性的同时开展有针对性的检查。

零毁林是可以通过溯源低风险地区产品,将之区分于高风险地区产品,并使企业能定期溯源供应源来实现。中风险或高风险区域则需要更加详细的地理位置证据和更加严格的分离。

针对最能产生效果的地方采取行动是非常关键的。Trase数据显示,大宗商品推动的森林砍伐现象通常高度集中在个别大宗商品产地。例如,与欧盟从巴西进口大豆和牛肉有关的毁林中,80%发生在不到5%的生产城市(见图表)。遏制毁林仍然是一项重大挑战,与此同时,将干预措施集中在恰当的地方将大幅提高效率。

Maps of Brazil

促进商品贸易的阶梯性转变

对商品产地的溯源取决于它们的采购方式。一些商品直接来自生产商,这有助于溯源工作,而另一些商品则来自中间商,其货源各异,有时来自大型小农生产者网络。尽管可获得的数据有限,但新的研究表明,12-44%的大豆,15-90%的棕榈油, 94-99%的活牛和100%的可可脂来自于间接采购。

鉴于普遍存在的间接采购问题,拟议的法规将需要促进当前行业运作方式的阶梯性改变。欧盟需要投资于与生产国和生产区域的伙伴关系,让利益相关者——特别是高风险地区的小农户和执行机构——达到合规,并能获得可证明零毁林供应的必要信息。

为了成功地减少毁林,迫切需要摆脱迄今为止几乎完全只关注单个供应链是否零毁林的做法,转而为个体经营者提供亟需的激励措施,促使其成为零毁林供应商。从而让大宗商品购买者利用国家以下各级政府层面的基准体系数据,根据供应链内部和不同地区的采购对象,评估自己的风险敞口。

关于条例实施和执行的信息应尽可能公开,以促进利益攸关方群体之间的对话、独立审查和最佳做法交流。

---

zu Ermgassen, E. 等《解决零毁林商品供应链中的间接采购问题》.AgriRxiv预印本.2021年10月.DOI:10.31220/agriRxiv.2021.00085.

下载Trase的政策简报:欧盟关于免毁林产品的尽职调查提案

Trase欢迎您的反馈

Related insights

Cocoa farmer drying cocoa beans, Ghana

12 Dec 2023

Cocoa traders fall short on supplier disclosure in Ghana

Companies exporting cocoa from Ghana are failing to publicly demonstrate that their supplies are not grown on deforested land, according to research by Trase, raising questions over their sustainability commitments and their preparedness to comply with the EU deforestation regulation.

DECEMBER 4: Panelists onstage at The Sustainable Trade Summit​ during the UN Climate Change Conference COP28 at Expo City Dubai on December 4, 2023, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. (Photo by COP28 / Christopher Pike)

5 Dec 2023

Commodity-driven deforestation and peatland loss emits more carbon than Germany

As all eyes turn to the climate talks at COP28, Trase quantifies the greenhouse gas emissions caused by deforestation and peatland degradation linked to countries’ production and consumption of beef, soy, palm oil and other commodities.

A HERD OF NELORE CATTLE ON PASTURE IN BRAZIL (BRASTOCK/SHUTTERSTOCK)

Brazilian beef exports and deforestation

The rate of deforestation and land conversion driven by the expansion of pasture for beef production in Brazil increased by 60% between 2016 and 2020, while the Amazon and Cerrado continue to be cleared despite zero-deforestation commitments made by beef producers.

Brown flax seeds image

30 Oct 2023

Trase links Belgium’s commodity imports to water scarcity

Unsustainable demands for water threaten global food security and have serious environmental impacts. A new report from Trase explores how Belgium’s imports of agricultural commodities are connected to water scarcity around the world.

Worker harvesting coffee beans, Colombia

12 Oct 2023

A double espresso with no deforestation, please

The EUDR will have significant implications for the coffee sector. Appropriate guidance and nuanced risk classifications from the EU Commission can support effective implementation.

Displaying 5 of 79 related insights

We use cookies on our site.