A glossary of our most commonly used terms.

ABCD companies

ADM (Archer Daniels Midland Company), Bunge, Cargill and Louis Dreyfus. These four corporations dominate global trading in agricultural commodities, particularly oilseeds.


The Amazon basin includes the most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world. 60% of the Amazon biome is in Brazil. Trase data for the Brazilian Amazon include 496 municipalities. See also Legal Amazon.

Amsterdam Declarations

Non-legally binding political commitments aiming to achieve more sustainable and deforestation-free agricultural commodity supply chains where Europe has significant market share by 2020 through stimulating and supporting private-sector action. The two Declarations – one on stopping deforestation and one on sustainable palm oil – were launched in December 2015. Signed so far by Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and the UK.

Atlantic forest

A forest biome originally covering 1.3 million km2, extending along the entire Atlantic coast of Brazil and inland as far as eastern Paraguay and Misiones province, Argentina. More than 85% of its original extent has been deforested, putting many endemic species under threat of extinction.

CO2 equivalent gross emissions

Estimated gross CO2 equivalent emitted into the atmosphere following the total removal of the carbon stored in native vegetation.


The most species-rich savannah biome in the world, comprising forests, woodlands and open savannah, nearly all in Brazil. Only around 20% of the Cerrado’s 2 million km2 remain relatively intact. Trase data for the Cerrado include 1,113 Brazilian municipalities.

Commodity deforestation

The area of native vegetation cleared to make way for production of a given commodity each year. Calculated by comparing deforestation maps with later crop production maps. Typical time lags between native vegetation clearance and planting/use are taken into account (e.g. soy deforestation includes any land under soy crops within five years of being cleared). For recent years where production data are not available, future conversion is extrapolated based on historical patterns. Measured in hectares. Read more. See also commodity deforestation risk and relative deforestation risk.

Commodity deforestation risk

Estimates a trader or import country’s exposure to the risk that a commodity it is sourcing is directly associated with recent deforestation in the area where it was produced. Measured in hectares. Trase takes the area of production in a given year, then determines how much of that area was cleared of native vegetation in recent years, and assigns that area to buyers proportionally to their share of the output from that production area. Commodity deforestation risk can also be calculated for a production area. Read more about how we calculate commodity deforestation risk. See also commodity deforestation and relative deforestation risk.

Deforestasi untuk kelapa sawit

Kawasan hutan yang dikonversi untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit di tahun tertentu.


The deliberate clearance of forest or other native vegetation. Trase uses the best available data on deforestation from each country. Trase data do not distinguish between legally permitted and illegal deforestation unless specified. Trase measures deforestation in hectares.

Deforestation exposure

‘Deforestation exposure’ replaces the term ‘deforestation risk’ found in earlier Trase publications as a measure of the exposure of supply chain actors to deforestation from commodity production based on their sourcing patterns. The name has been changed for greater clarity.

Deforestation for palm oil

The area of forest converted to oil palm plantations in a specific year.

Deforestation risk

A metric describing past deforestation embedded in the trade of palm oil. Deforestation risk is calculated through a retrospective approach that aggregates past deforestation within the footprint of currently productive palm plantations. A full description of the methods used to calculate this metric is available at:

Desmatamento e conversão da soja

O desmatamento e a conversão por soja são calculados considerando a área de soja colhida em um determinado ano que foi plantada em áreas desmatadas nos cinco anos anteriores. Por exemplo, o desmatamento e a conversão por soja em 2020 referem-se a áreas de soja colhida em 2020 de terras que foram convertidas entre 2015 e 2019.

Dry Chaco

Part of the Paraguayan Gran Chaco. For the purpose of calculations provided in this Yearbook, Dry Chaco (Chaco Seco) is considered to be the two westernmost departments of Paraguay: Boquerón and Alto Paraguay. Although part of Presidente Hayes department is in the Dry Chaco, this department is counted as Humid Chaco.

Exclusion bonds

Bonds that exclude certain companies and /or locations with high ESG-risk profiles from the use of proceeds generated by the bond.

Gran Chaco

A diverse biome that includes dry forests, savannahs, grasslands and wetlands. It covers 6.5 million km2, extending into eastern Bolivia, western Paraguay, northern Argentina and southwestern Brazil. Large areas of the Gran Chaco have been cleared for croplands and grazing lands in the last 30 years. For how we calculate deforestation in the Paraguayan Chaco see also Dry Chaco and Humid Chaco.

Green bonds

A fixed-income instrument used to fund projects with an environmental benefit.

Humid Chaco

Part of the Paraguayan Gran Chaco. For the purpose of calculations given here, the Humid Chaco (Chaco Humedo) is considered to be Presidente Hayes department in western Paraguay and another seven departments along the east bank of the Paraguay river.

Komitmen antideforestasi

Janji dari perusahaan untuk mengeliminasi deforestasi yang berhubungan dengan produksi komoditas yang mereka perdagangkan.

Legal Amazon

An official designation established by Brazilian law in 1966 referring to seven Brazilian states that extend into the Amazon basin: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins, as well as parts of Maranhão and Mato Grosso. Known in Portuguese as Amazônia Legal. As whole states are included, the Legal Amazon extends into other biomes. See also Amazon.


An area of eastern Brazil that has become the country’s most active frontier of agricultural expansion and deforestation. It includes all or part of four states, from which it derives its name: Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí and Bahia. Matopiba covers a total area of 73,000 ha. Over 90% is in the Cerrado biome, of which Matopiba constitutes 37%. Soy plantations currently cover more than 4 Mha. The rapid expansion of soy and other crops has driven widespread deforestation and loss of native habitat. At least 37% of soy expansion in the last decade replaced native vegetation with a year of clearance.

New York Declaration on Forests

A 2014 voluntary political declaration between governments, companies and civil society. Goal 2 (of 10) is to support and help meet the private-sector goal of eliminating deforestation from the production of agricultural commodities such as palm oil, soy, paper and beef products by no later than 2020. Its 2019 annual assessment concluded that this goal will not be met.

Passive investors

Passive investors buy into a fund that tracks a stock-market index of companies.

Raw equivalents

Many agricultural commodities undergo some level of processing before they are traded and sold. For example, soy is commonly processed into oil and meal, while beef is traded as fresh/frozen meat (boned and unboned), live cattle, offal, dried products and more. To facilitate comparisons between trade flows, Trase data on traded volumes are always converted to a common equivalent based on the amount of unprocessed commodity needed to produce it. Read more about how we convert volumes for different export commodities.

Relative deforestation risk

Commodity deforestation risk calculated by thousand tonnes of commodity exported. Calculated in hectares per 1000 tonnes (ha/kt). See also commodity deforestation risk.

Revolving credit facilities (RCF)

A flexible form of credit that operates like a corporate overdraft facility

Risiko deforestasi

Metrik yang menjelaskan deforestasi di dalam perdagangan minyak kelapa sawit. Risiko deforestasi dihitung dengan pendekatan retrospektif yang mengagregasi deforestasi di masa lalu di dalam jejak perkebunan kelapa sawit yang saat ini produktif. Penjelasan lengkap dari metode yang dipakai untuk menghitung metrik ini tersedia di sini:

Soy Moratorium

A 2006 commitment by companies making up more than 90% of Brazil’s soy trade not to purchase soy planted on recently deforested land in the Amazon. Signed by the Brazilian Association of the Vegetable Oil Industry (ABIOVE), the Brazilian Association of Cereal Exporters (ANEC) and their respective members. The cut-off date was updated to July 2008 from July 2006 to align with Brazil’s Forest Code.

Soy deforestation and conversion

Soy deforestation and conversion is calculated by looking at the area of soy harvested in a given year that was planted on areas deforested in the five preceding years. For example, soy deforestation and conversion in 2020 refers to areas of soy harvested in 2020 from lands that were converted between 2015 and 2019.

Sustainability-linked bonds/loans

Finance linked to environmental, social and governance performance indicators against which a coupon mark-up or reduction is set.

Sustainable transition bond

Bonds issued by companies in high-impact ‘brown’ industries aiming to fund its transition to a sustainable business. These tend to use second-party opinions to vouch for the use of proceeds.

Term loans

Lending over a fixed period

Zero-deforestation commitment

Publicly available commitments made by companies that their supply chains will not include commodities produced on recently deforested land.

trader, exporter

While Trase data for many commodity supply chains includes importers, trader and exporter both refer to companies that handle the export of commodities. Exporter groups are traders with a common parent company. The analysis in this Yearbook uses exporter groups where the data is available.


大豆毁林和土地转换的计算方法是查看在指定年份前五年种植在毁林地区的已收获大豆的面积。 例如,2020 年大豆毁林和土地转换是指 2020 年从 2015 年至 2019 年之间土地转换的土地上收获大豆的面积。

We use cookies on our site.