Agriculture drives more than 90% of tropical deforestation

Halting deforestation will require a step-change in approach, and to be effective measures must address underlying and indirect roles of agriculture, says study.

8 Sept 2022

A new study published today in leading journal, Science, finds that between 90 and 99 percent of all deforestation in the tropics is driven directly or indirectly by agriculture. Yet only half to two-thirds of this results in the expansion of active agricultural production on the deforested land.

The study is a collaboration between many of the world’s leading deforestation experts and provides a new synthesis of the complex connections between deforestation and agriculture, and what this means for current efforts to drive down forest loss. Following a review of the best available data, the new study shows that the amount of tropical deforestation driven by agriculture is higher than 80%, the most commonly cited number for the past decade.

This comes at a crucial time following the Glasgow Declaration on Forests at COP26 and ahead of the UN Biodiversity Conference (COP15) later this year and can help ensure that urgent efforts to tackle deforestation are guided and evaluated by an evidence base fit for purpose.

“Our review makes clear that between 90 and 99 percent of all deforestation in the tropics is driven directly or indirectly by agriculture. But what surprised us was that a comparatively smaller share of the deforestation – between 45 and 65 percent – results in the expansion of actual agricultural production on the deforested land. This finding is of profound importance for designing effective measures to reduce deforestation and promote sustainable rural development,” says Florence Pendrill, lead author of the study at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

The fact that agriculture is the main driver of tropical deforestation is not new. However, previous estimates of how much forest has been converted to agricultural land across the tropics varied widely – from 4.3 to 9.6 million hectares per year between 2011 and 2015. The study’s findings narrow down this range to 6.4 to 8.8 million hectares per year and helps explain the uncertainty in the numbers.

“A big piece of the puzzle is just how much deforestation is ‘for nothing’,” observed Prof. Patrick Meyfroidt from UCLouvain and F.R.S.-FNRS in Belgium. “While agriculture is the ultimate driver, forests and other ecosystems are often cleared for land speculation that never materialised, projects that were abandoned or ill-conceived, land that proved unsuitable for cultivation, as well as due to fires that spread into forests neighboring cleared areas.”

Understanding the significance of these drivers is key for policy makers – whether in consumer markets such as the European Union’s recently proposed due diligence legislation for “deforestation free products”, private sector initiatives for specific commodities, or for rural development policy in producer countries.

The study makes clear that a handful of commodities are responsible for the majority of deforestation linked to actively producing agricultural land — well over half of which is linked to pasture, soy and palm oil alone. But it also calls out the shortcomings of sector-specific initiatives that are limited in their ability to deal with indirect impacts.

“Sector specific initiatives to combat deforestation can be invaluable, and new measures to prohibit imports of commodities linked to deforestation in consumer markets, such as those under negotiation in the EU, UK and USA represent a major step forward from largely voluntary efforts to combat deforestation to date,'' said Dr. Toby Gardner of the Stockholm Environment Institute and Director of the supply chain transparency initiative, Trase.

“But as our study shows, strengthening forest and land-use governance in producer countries has to be the ultimate goal of any policy response. Supply chain and demand-side measures must be designed in a way that also tackles the underlying and indirect ways in which agriculture is linked to deforestation. They need to drive improvements in sustainable rural development, otherwise we can expect to see deforestation rates remaining stubbornly high in many places,” Dr. Gardner added.

The study’s findings point to the need for supply chain interventions to go beyond a focus on specific commodities and risk management, to help drive genuine partnerships between producer and consumer markets and governments. This needs to include strong incentive-based measures that make sustainable agriculture economically attractive, while disincentivising further conversion of native vegetation and supporting the most vulnerable smallholder farmers. The authors say this should include a stronger focus on domestic markets, often the biggest drivers of demand for many commodities, including beef, and a strengthening of partnerships between companies, governments and civil society in producer jurisdictions.

Finally, the study highlights three critical gaps where a stronger evidence base is needed to better target efforts to reduce deforestation; “The first is that without a globally and temporally consistent data product on deforestation we cannot be confident about overall trends in conversion. The second is that except for oil palm and soy, we lack data on the coverage and expansion of specific commodities to know which are more important, with our understanding of global pasture and grazing lands being especially dire. The third is that we know comparatively very little indeed about tropical dry forests, and forests in Africa,” said Professor Martin Persson of Chalmers University.

“What is most worrying, given the urgency of the crisis,” added Prof. Persson, “is that each of these evidence gaps pose significant barriers to our ability to drive down deforestation in the most effective way — by knowing where the problems are concentrated, and understanding the success of efforts to date.”

Despite these knowledge gaps and remaining uncertainties, the study stresses that a step-change in efforts to effectively tackle and curb deforestation and conversion of other ecosystems and foster sustainable rural development is urgently needed. The Glasgow Declaration on Forests recognised the importance of jointly addressing the crises of climate and biodiversity loss and set a new level of ambition for tackling deforestation and promoting sustainable agriculture. The authors of this new study say it is paramount that we begin to see individual countries and policymakers prioritise the realisation of this ambition.

For further information, contact:

Jolene Tan, Trase Communications Lead at Global Canopy | | +44(0)7961657 952

Notes for Editors

[1] Disentangling the numbers behind agriculture-driven tropical deforestation will be published in Science 377, 9 September 2022. It will be available online at this link ( from 14:00 EST on 8 September. The study is authored by: Florence Pendrill, Toby A. Gardner, Patrick Meyfroidt, U. Martin Persson, Justin Adams, Tasso Azevedo, Mairon G. Bastos Lima, Matthias Baumann, Philip G. Curtis, Veronique De Sy, Rachael Garrett, Javier Godar, Elizabeth Dow Goldman, Matthew C. Hansen, Robert Heilmayr, Martin Herold, Tobias Kuemmerle, Michael J. Lathuillière, Vivian Ribeiro, Alexandra Tyukavina, Mikaela J. Weisse, Chris West.

[2] Collaborating research organizations and initiatives include:

Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, conducts research and education in technology and natural sciences at a high international level. With scientific excellence as a basis, Chalmers promotes knowledge and technical solutions for a sustainable world. Through global commitment and entrepreneurship, we foster an innovative spirit, in close collaboration with wider society.

Stockholm Environment Institute, an international non-profit research and policy organization that tackles environment and development challenges. We connect science and decision-making to develop solutions for a sustainable future for all. Across our eight centres in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, we engage with policy processes, development action and business practice throughout the world.

UCLouvain (the Université catholique de Louvain) is a leading research university in Belgium.

The Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS) is a major non-profit organization funding fundamental and oriented research in French-speaking Belgium.

Trase is a data-driven transparency initiative that revolutionises our understanding of the international trade and financing of agricultural commodities which drive tropical deforestation. Its unique supply chain mapping approach brings together disparate, publicly available data to connect consumer markets to deforestation and other impacts in producer countries. Trase’s free online tools and actionable intelligence enable governments, companies, financial institutions and civil society organisations to take practical steps to address deforestation. Trase is a not-for-profit partnership founded in 2015 by the Stockholm Environment Institute and Global Canopy.

Additional collaborating organizations and institutes: Tropical Forest Alliance hosted by World Economic Forum; MapBiomas; Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Juniata Analytics LLC; Wageningen University and Research; ETH Zürich; Cambridge University; Global Forest Watch at World Resources Institute; University of Maryland, College Park; University of California, Santa Barbara; Helmholz GFZ Research Centre for Geosciences; and Integrated Research Institute for Transformations in Human-Environment Systems (IRI THESys).

[3] More information, including a copy of the paper, can be found online at the Science press package at

[4] Images for media outreach, please ensure photos are properly credited as per captions in file names:

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